The Eukaryotic Linear Motif resource: 2022 release.
Kumar, M., Michael, S., Alvarado-Valverde, J., Meszaros, B., Samano-Sanchez, H., Zeke, A., Dobson, L., Lazar, T., Ord, M., Nagpal, A., Farahi, N., Kaser, M., Kraleti, R., Davey, N. E., Pancsa, R., Chemes, L. B. and Gibson, T. J.
Structural and Computational Biology Unit, European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Heidelberg 69117, Germany.
Collaboration for joint PhD degree between EMBL and Heidelberg University, Faculty of Biosciences.
Zhejiang University School of Medicine, International Campus, Zhejiang University, Haining, China.
Biomedical Sciences, Edinburgh Medical School, The University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, EH8 9JZ, UK.
Institute of Enzymology, Research Centre for Natural Sciences, Budapest 1117, Hungary.
VIB-VUB Center for Structural Biology, Vlaams Instituut voor Biotechnologie, Pleinlaan 2, 1050 Brussels, Belgium.
Structural Biology Brussels, Department of Bioengineering, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Pleinlaan 2, 1050 Brussels, Belgium.
Institute of Cancer Research, Chester Beatty Laboratories, 237 Fulham Rd, Chelsea, London SW3 6JB, UK.
Department of Biological Sciences, BITS Pilani, K. K. Birla Goa campus, Zuarinagar, Goa 403726, India.
Institute of Pharmacy and Molecular Biotechnology (IPMB), Heidelberg University, Heidelberg, Germany.
Justus Liebig University Giessen, Ludwigstrasse 23, 35390 Giessen, Germany.
Instituto de Investigaciones Biotecnologicas "Dr. Rodolfo A. Ugalde'', IIB-UNSAM, IIBIO-CONICET, Universidad Nacional de San Martin, Av. 25 de Mayo y Francia, CP1650 San Martin, Buenos Aires, Argentina.
Almost twenty years after its initial release, the Eukaryotic Linear Motif (ELM) resource remains an invaluable source of information for the study of motif-mediated protein-protein interactions. ELM provides a comprehensive, regularly updated and well-organised repository of manually curated, experimentally validated short linear motifs (SLiMs). An increasing number of SLiM-mediated interactions are discovered each year and keeping the resource up-to-date continues to be a great challenge. In the current update, 30 novel motif classes have been added and five existing classes have undergone major revisions. The update includes 411 new motif instances mostly focused on cell-cycle regulation, control of the actin cytoskeleton, membrane remodelling and vesicle trafficking pathways, liquid-liquid phase separation and integrin signalling. Many of the newly annotated motif-mediated interactions are targets of pathogenic motif mimicry by viral, bacterial or eukaryotic pathogens, providing invaluable insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying infectious diseases. The current ELM release includes 317 motif classes incorporating 3934 individual motif instances manually curated from 3867 scientific publications. ELM is available at:
Nucleic Acids Research 50(D1): D497-D508 (2022)