Overview and New Insights Into the Diversity, Evolution, Role, and Regulation of Kisspeptins and Their Receptors in Teleost Fish.
Wang, B., Mechaly, A. S. and Somoza, G. M.
Key Laboratory of Sustainable Development of Marine Fisheries, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Yellow Sea Fisheries Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, Qingdao, China.
Laboratory for Marine Fisheries and Food Production Processes, Pilot National Laboratory for Marine Science and Technology (Qingdao), Qingdao, China.
Instituto de Investigaciones en Biodiversidad y Biotecnologia (INBIOTEC-CONICET), Mar del Plata, Argentina.
Fundacion para Investigaciones Biologicas Aplicadas (FIBA), Mar del Plata, Argentina.
Instituto Tecnologico de Chascomus (CONICET-UNSAM), Chascomus, Argentina.
In the last two decades, kisspeptin (Kiss) has been identified as an important player in the regulation of reproduction and other physiological functions in vertebrates, including several fish species. To date, two ligands (Kiss1, Kiss2) and three kisspeptin receptors (Kissr1, Kissr2, Kissr3) have been identified in teleosts, likely due to whole-genome duplication and loss of genes that occurred early in teleost evolution. Recent results in zebrafish and medaka mutants have challenged the notion that the kisspeptin system is essential for reproduction in fish, in marked contrast to the situation in mammals. In this context, this review focuses on the role of kisspeptins at three levels of the reproductive, brain-pituitary-gonadal (BPG) axis in fish. In addition, this review compiled information on factors controlling the Kiss/Kissr system, such as photoperiod, temperature, nutritional status, sex steroids, neuropeptides, and others. In this article, we summarize the available information on the molecular diversity and evolution, tissue expression and neuroanatomical distribution, functional significance, signaling pathways, and gene regulation of Kiss and Kissr in teleost fishes. Of particular note are recent advances in understanding flatfish kisspeptin systems, which require further study to reveal their structural and functional diversity.
Frontiers in Endocrinology 13: 862614 (2022)